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Sunday, April 23, 2017

24/04/2017: Catfish feed for Africa

by Dr Hanno Slawski, R&D Manager, Aller Aqua, Denmark

The African catfish is of increasing popularity as fish for aquaculture production

The versatility and robustness of Africa catfish allow the species to thrive in challenging environments.
Especially in Africa, catfish farming has been increasing over the last few years and is about to increase further. Some constraints, however, limit the production increase. Among them are feed quality and availability.

Farming and marketing of catfish In Africa, Nigeria is the biggest producer of African catfish. In hatcheries, catfish hypophysation for induced spawning is a common practice. Catfish fry are obtained continuously, thus, stocking material is available all year.

In small on-land tanks, fish are grown to 2-5g, and are afterwards stocked into earthen ponds or tanks. Due to water shortage and energy cost, fresh pond water is a limitation. Most tanks are filled with a certain amount of fresh water in the morning, replacing used water.

That means rapid changes in water quality after the water exchange. Often, the water exchange is followed by the first daily feeding. Multiple feedings or demand feeders are seldom principles. Instead, a meal in the morning hours and one in the late afternoon are common practice.

The typical market size of African catfish in Nigeria is around 1kg. It is said, that the fish should reach this size in approximately four months after stocking fingerlings into ponds or tanks. The preferred fish in the market is relatively short and round.

Catfish farmers therefore aim to produce catfish with a relatively high condition factor, letting the fish grow fast. The last period before selling the fish is called “fattening period”. Fish are fed to obtain the shape desired by the market.

Fish are mostly sold from the farm to small retailers, especially market women. They visit the fish farms before going to the market.

Thus, fish are harvested daily, keeping the supply chain for fresh fish intact. On bigger farms, several size classes of fish are standing stock, so that continuous supply of fish to the market is possible.

Feed quality
Challenges with power supply and water quality can occur, setting high demands on farm management and fish care. If the fish do not grow as fast as expected, feed quality is quickly questioned, since water parameters are difficult to monitor and less seen as a potential variable determining fish growth.

Thus, stable feed quality becomes an important tool to steer farming success. When approaching the Nigerian catfish feed market, Aller Aqua aimed at delivering high performance feeds that were different to available products.

For this, feeds were collected from the market and tested in feeding trials with African catfish in Aller Aqua Research in Germany.

The trial results delivered important information about composition and quality of catfish feeds and potential for improvements included in the newly created catfish feed range.

Read the full article HERE.

The Aquaculturists
This blog is maintained by The Aquaculturists staff and is supported by the
magazine International Aquafeed which is published by
Perendale Publishers Ltd

For additional daily news from aquaculture around the world: aquaculture-news

Liptosa company profile

LípidosToledo SA began in 1996 as a family business and under the guidance of a group of professionals with extensive experience in the Animal Nutrition field. 

From the outset, the company's mission has been to provide its clients with personalised service and efficient, natural products that are able to meet the demands of the sector.

In 2000 Lípidos Toledo SA moved its facilities, building a modern manufacturing plant in Talavera de la Reina (Toledo, Spain). In 2012 it acquired a new industrial warehouse in the vicinity of the main facilities where the manufacturing of the powder additives takes place and a third storage warehouse.

With these new facilities Lípidos Toledo SA is able to have separate manufacturing lines for the different products they manufacture, avoiding the risk of cross contamination.

Furthermore, the new facilities enable the company to manufacture products with fishmeal derivatives, allowing the company further expansion, mainly in the aquaculture range.

The facilities allow the manufacture of nutritional products, liquid and powder based phytobiotic additives, nutraceutical products and nutritional and specialty products without any risk of the products becoming cross contaminated.

In 2010, Lípidos Toledo SA acquired a large office space at C/ San Romualdo 12-14 in Madrid, Spain where all logistics work is carried out. This enables Lípidos Toledo SA to fulfil its objective of manufacturing products of the highest quality and providing its clients the best service.

Visit the website HERE.

The Aquaculturists
This blog is maintained by The Aquaculturists staff and is supported by the
magazine International Aquafeed which is published by
Perendale Publishers Ltd

For additional daily news from aquaculture around the world: aquaculture-news

Thursday, April 20, 2017

21/04/2017: Mexico among the top ten tilapia producers in the World

One of the fish species produced in aquaculture farms in Mexico of greatest consumption and popularity is tilapia, which is also known as mojarra, and which represents a food solution for the Mexican population

Image: Etienne Mahler
According to the following press release from the National Commission of Aquaculture and Fisheries, so popular is this rich fish that 50 percent aquaculture farms in Mexico produce it.

70 percent of the national volume is provided by five states of the country, Chiapas occupies the first place with 28,782.03 tons; Followed by Jalisco with 27,739.13 tons; Michoacán in third with 9,663.14 tons; Veracruz fourth with 8,762.11 tons; and Sinaloa is the fifth with 8,285 tonnes.

The importance of tilapia in Mexico is preponderant since the country is the ninth largest producer in the world, China where 1,698,483 tonnes is produced. Another fact to highlight is its commercialisation, which is mostly at the national level, although this product has been imported to meet demand, exports have gone up generating US$ 31.9 million from the 4,340 tons exported.

In addition, tilapia is an especially rich fish with great nutritional benefits because of its high protein content, low in mercury and high in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), which is essential in pregnancy and cognitive development in infants.

Read more HERE.

The Aquaculturists
This blog is maintained by The Aquaculturists staff and is supported by the
magazine International Aquafeed which is published by
Perendale Publishers Ltd

For additional daily news from aquaculture around the world: aquaculture-news

IDAH company profile

IDAH’s ultimate goal is to be world’s number one with customer satisfaction.
IDAH’s vision is to build on our solid traditional manufacturing roots and expand out to be a full-service solutions provider: offering value-added system designs and turnkey project consultation services.

Through this expansion, we hope to create an international platform where technology could be shared and integrated for the benefit of our customers.

By upholding the IDAH Spirit, the passionate team members of IDAH are committed to achieve this vision.

The IDAH Spirit
"Creativity, Honesty & Quality "

Creativity is what gave birth to IDAH in 1974 and consequently the birth of the feeds manufacturing industry in Asia.

Innovation through creativity is what has enabled us to be the industry driver from our inception until now. IDAH is committed and well positioned to lead the industry of tomorrow.

If creativity is the engine that has rapidly pushed IDAH forward; Honesty is what keeps us moving in the right direction.

 IDAH has been firmly grounded on the virtues of quality, honour, and accountability. Our main business is to safeguard the trust that customers have given us and be a dedicated upholder of the highest quality standard.

Visit the website HERE.

The Aquaculturists
This blog is maintained by The Aquaculturists staff and is supported by the
magazine International Aquafeed which is published by
Perendale Publishers Ltd

For additional daily news from aquaculture around the world: aquaculture-news

21/04/2017: Feather meal to replace fishmeal by half in Nile tilapia diet

Hydrolyzed Feather meal is widely used in fish feeds
by Franz-Peter Rebafka, GePro Gefluegel-Protein Vertriebsgesellschaft mbH & Co. KG 

The material is rich in crude protein but its amino acid profile is not balanced, its digestibility is poor very often and some of its amino acids are destroyed during the drying process of the meal.

Gepro, Germany, has developed a drying process at low temperature that decreases the destruction rate of the amino acids in the feather meal. The improved product is called Goldmehl® FM.

Trials done on shrimps and some fish species, demonstrated that it can successfully replace some of the fishmeal in aqua-feed, without any detrimental effect on the performance.

This article explains the trial that was carried out by Nam Sai Farms Co. Ltd., Thailand for Gepro Gefluegel-Protein Vertriebsgesellschaft mbH & Co. KG to test whether GoldMehl®FM can replace fishmeal in practical diets for Nile tilapia reared in hapas in earthen ponds.

Materials and Methods
In a previously drained and disinfected earth pond of 1 rai (pond 10, Nam Sai Farm, Tambon Ban Grabow, Ban Sang, Prachinburi, Thailand), 15 x 5 m2 hapas (1 mm mesh) were installed and stocked with 300 1” Nile tilapia fry of 0.2 g initial body mass (total 4,500 fish). The fish were initially fed on powdered feed with a crude protein content of 30 percent at a rate of 5-10 percent body weight per day divided into three feeds.
Table 1: Feeding schedule

The amount fed was calculated subsequent to biweekly sampling and fed at a set rate for the whole period. After a period of four weeks, small pellets, consisting of the same ingredients as the powdered test diets, were added in increasing amounts until the fish were fed entirely on pellets only (Table 1).

The weaning period took one week. Five isonitrogenous test diets, in which Goldmehl® FM (supplied by GePro) is used to replace 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100 percent of fish meal, was compared in triplicate to test their effect on growth and health performance of stocked juvenile tilapia (Tables 2 & 3).

An inclusion rate of 3:7 fishmeal:soybean meal was used in supplying protein to the control diet, as this is typical of most commercial tilapia diets. The total culture period was 12 weeks.

Hapa change was carried out after six weeks of culture, and the fine-meshed 5m2 hapas were all replaced with 10m2 4mm meshed hapas, which allow for better water exchange.

Read the full article HERE.

The Aquaculturists
This blog is maintained by The Aquaculturists staff and is supported by the
magazine International Aquafeed which is published by
Perendale Publishers Ltd

For additional daily news from aquaculture around the world: aquaculture-news

21/04/2017: SITEC: Nutriad´s technical symposium Brazil

For the fourth consecutive year, multinational feed additives producer Nutriad, hosted a well-attended technical symposium in Brazil, where current trends and future challenges in animal protein production were discussed

Ten renowned industry experts, from academic and industry background, presented to an international group of poultry and swine producers at the Costão do Santinho Resort in Florianopolis, Santa Catarina.
 Participants varying from producers coming from integrators, feed and premixer producers as well as consultants, veterinarians, nutritionists and researchers interacted with global experts that hosted talks on the global agribusiness in general and Brazil focusing on areas as feed intake via palatability, mycotoxin management and digestive performance.

The opening day was dedicated to the applications of flavours and sweeteners in animal feed to promote nutrition at critical life stages.

Nutriad’s David Vanni Jacob, from Brazil and Simon Eskinazi from UK provided the audience with an array of technical data from across the world.

As producers sometimes have difficulties in determining the real threat that mycotoxins pose to their animals, the second day of the program was dedicated to enhance the understanding of mycotoxin management.

An interesting line up of researchers; raw material experts and industry leaders brought presentations of Dr Radka Borutova, Prof. Ana Paula Bracarense, Prof. Dr Eduardo Micotti da Glória and Guilherme Bromfman. Gut health is a key requirement for healthy and high yielding animals.

A range of topics on digestive performance were presented by Prof. Dr Elizabeth Santin, Dr Tim Goossens and Prof. Dr Roberto Guedes.

According to the event's host, Marcelo Nunes, Managing Director Nutriad South America, the 4th edition of SITEC once more exceeded expectations, "The intention is always to offer our clients and partners a program with relevant and updated guidelines on maximising the potential of their animals. At SITEC we are not only presenting technical content, we promote the interaction between attendants and speakers to forge productive relationships. Choosing Florianopolis to host our symposium - against the back drop of exuberant beaches and stunning nature - further confirms SITEC as one of the most prestigious events in the sector.”

Read more HERE.

The Aquaculturists
This blog is maintained by The Aquaculturists staff and is supported by the
magazine International Aquafeed which is published by
Perendale Publishers Ltd

For additional daily news from aquaculture around the world: aquaculture-news

20/04/2017: Mondi wins Flexostar Award for printing excellence and customer focus

The jury of ATF Flexo (French association of flexography), consisting of experts and professionals in this sector, awarded Mondi Industrial Bags’ pinch-bottom bag solution for customer Sopral with a Flexostar Award
The solution was produced at Mondi Lembacel SAS, France, and the plant’s product portfolio comprises pinch-bottom, open-mouth and valve bags.

For Sopral, the plant produced an attractively printed, strong pinch-bottom bag with ideal barrier properties for cat food packaging.

The excellent printing result on the laminated outer ply was honoured with the golden Flexostar Award in the category ‘print on paper’.

The winning pinch-bottom bag is constructed with four plies – with a 12-micron PET-laminated outer layer of white kraft paper 80 g/m² for outstanding print results.

Thanks to the 4-ply construction and the grease-proof outer layer, the bag is not only very strong and reliable but also ideally suited for pet food.

Sopral is a French producer of pet food and horse feed and a long-term customer of Mondi Lembacel.

Customer focus and interaction are key strategies of Mondi, and winning the Flexostar Award is once again proof of how well this strategy is adopted and lived every day.

“This is a great achievement for us to be recognised by the world of printers as one of the most reliable partners in delivering consistently high-quality print results,” said Laurent Nefoussi, Sales & Marketing Manager, Mondi Industrial Bags France.

Read more HERE.

The Aquaculturists
This blog is maintained by The Aquaculturists staff and is supported by the
magazine International Aquafeed which is published by
Perendale Publishers Ltd

For additional daily news from aquaculture around the world: aquaculture-news

Wednesday, April 19, 2017

20/04/2017: GAA spearheading initiative to reduce SRS in farmed salmon in Chile

Together with Multiexport Foods S.A. (“Multiexport”), Mitsui & Co., Ltd. (“Mitsui Tokyo”) and the Monterey Bay Aquarium’s Seafood Watch® program, the Global Aquaculture Alliance is spearheading an initiative in Chile aimed at contributing to a reduction in the incidence of Salmonid Rickettsial Septicaemia (SRS) in farmed salmon

The Piscirickettsia salmonis, or SRS, an endemic intercellular bacterium, has reportedly cost the farmed salmon industry more than $300 million annually. 

Image: Paul Miller
SRS can spread quickly, causing high mortalities if not treated quickly. Announced on Day three of Seafood Expo North America on March 21, this initiative, if implemented, would apply the principles of integrated health management, including the implementation of GAA’s newly developed Biosecurity Area Management Standards, together with an array of health management tools such as vaccines, functional feeds and genetic selection, among others.

A key element of this initiative is close coordination of biosecurity management among farms within a production area and physical separation from nearby zones. This project would also monitor a variety of other factors, including water quality and the presence of harmful algae blooms.

If implemented, Multiexport’s farmed salmon producer subsidiary, which is jointly owned with Mitsui Tokyo, will manage every activity related to this initiative.

“The Global Aquaculture Alliance is pleased to collaborate on this unique opportunity to apply the principles of integrated health management and biosecurity area management to reduce the use of antibiotics in controlling an otherwise intractable disease. The results of this project will have far reaching benefits to producers, consumers and the environment,” said GAA President George Chamberlain.

“We are committed to providing our value clients the highest standards of quality and sustainability now and in the future. Accordingly, we will be always collaborating, promoting, and working towards securing our customers the sustainability of the farmed salmon industry, in all its aspects, wherever we operate. This initiative goes in the direction, enhancing, our goal of providing a highly sustainable source of healthy protein, with a minimal environmental footprint. It is a great opportunity, with highly valuable partners, to even improve our standards and to contribute to a better fish health and environment,” comments Andres Lyon, CEO of Multiexport Foods S.A. and CEO of Salmones Multiexport S.A.

“We are honoured to participate in the organisation of this initiative with great partners both in Chile and the US, which will contribute to strengthening ecological sustainability in salmon farming in Chile. We hope this initiative will establish a new integrated management system as an advanced farming standard in Chile for a better environment, better sustainability, and better quality salmon,” comments Yasushi Takahashi, COO of Mitsui & Co., Ltd.’s Americas Business Unit and CEO of Mitsui & Co. (U.S.A.), Inc.

Read more HERE.

The Aquaculturists
This blog is maintained by The Aquaculturists staff and is supported by the
magazine International Aquafeed which is published by
Perendale Publishers Ltd

For additional daily news from aquaculture around the world: aquaculture-news

Wenger company profile

From small-town entrepreneur to worldwide leader.  With a little ingenuity and a lot of hard work, brothers Joe and Louis Wenger founded Wenger Mixing Company in a small Kansas (USA) town in 1935. They went on to design a machine that blended molasses with dry feedstuffs and produced pellets in 1948.

Theirs was the first extrusion cooking system and the basic technology for all commercial extruders used today.  The Wenger brothers' novel idea created a worldwide industry. And, seventy-five years later, Wenger Manufacturing, Inc. is still a family-owned business committed to groundbreaking innovation in the extrusion market.

Visit the website HERE.

The Aquaculturists
This blog is maintained by The Aquaculturists staff and is supported by the
magazine International Aquafeed which is published by 
Perendale Publishers Ltd

For additional daily news from aquaculture around the world: aquaculture-news

20/04/2017: Designing yeast derivative 2.0

by Stephane Ralite, Eric Leclercq, Sylvie Roquefeuil and Bruno Bertaud, Lallemand Animal Nutrition, France

Yeast derivatives (inactivated whole yeasts, yeast extracts, yeast cell walls, etc…) are well known for their benefits in animal and human nutrition

Image: Daniel Lobo
They are particularly used to help balance the intestinal microflora and help stimulate the host natural defenses. Most yeast derivatives on the market today are by-products of the fermentation industry, such as biofuel production.

They are usually characterized according to their biochemical composition: level of mannan-oligosaccharides (MOS), yeast β-glucans or protein contents. If such an approach is interesting to evaluate product purity, it does not totally reflect the functionality of the ingredients.

As expert in yeast production, Lallemand Animal Nutrition has conducted a collaborative R&D program in partnership with renowned research institutes aiming at a better understanding of yeast fractions, in particular the relationship between composition and function.

This research lead to the formulation of a new generation of yeast fractions with optimal characteristics in terms of pathogen binding, modulation of the immune system, as well as mucus production in fish.

Such solutions are particularly well adapted to answer the issues of aquaculture at a time of intensification and growing concern regarding the use of antibiotics.

First trials conducted in fish and shrimp indicate very promising outcomes, in terms of animal performances and economic benefits for the producer.

Looking at yeast fraction at the molecular-level
Cutting-edge techniques such as atomic-force microscopy (AFM) and single-molecule force spectroscopy (SMFS) were used to study yeast fractions under a totally new light. These techniques represent powerful tools to investigate the forces associated with single molecules. 

Figure 1: Different yeat strains exhibit different adhesive capacity.
Three steps of AFM analysis from left to right: microscopic topography
of the yeast cell.
The principle is to use a force sensor to measure the tension associated with a biopolymer immobilized on a surface (in this case, the yeast outer cell wall polysaccharides). 

The sensor is able to “read” through the surface of the sample (yeast fraction) and draw the topography of the binding forces (Figure 1, middle images).

Not all yeasts are equal

For the first time, we were able to “visualize” the yeast surface topography in terms of binding potential. It was shown that binding molecules were arranged differently depending on the yeast sample. For certain yeast strains, they are arranged as “sticky patches.”

While in others, they are scattered along the surface. In terms of functionality, the sticky patches show higher adhesive properties. This finding clearly shows that, while biochemical parameters are important, they are not sufficient to account for the functionality of a given yeast fraction.

The distribution of these molecules along the cell wall is also very important. These studies demonstrate that all yeast strains do not share the same biophysical structure, or topography. It was also shown that, for a given strain, binding properties can differ according to the production and inactivation process involved.

Hence, for a given strain, it is essential to determine the optimal production conditions: fermentation, but also the treatment of the live yeast to obtain the yeast fractions: the inactivation technique.

Clearly, this cannot be controlled when yeast cell walls are the by-product of fermentation processes, whereby the industrial processes are designed according to the primary production.

When producing custom yeast cells, however, the production process for each strain can be adapted to achieve the desired characteristics of the yeast derivative.

Read the full article HERE.

The Aquaculturists
This blog is maintained by The Aquaculturists staff and is supported by the
magazine International Aquafeed which is published by
Perendale Publishers Ltd

For additional daily news from aquaculture around the world: aquaculture-news

Tuesday, April 18, 2017

19/04/2017: Fish eyes to help understand human inherited blindness

The discovery of a gene in zebrafish that triggers congenital blindness could lead to a suitable cure for similar disease in humans

The following is a press release from the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology(OIST) Graduate University 

From left to right: Professor Ichiro Massai, Dr Maria
Iribarne and Dr Yuko Nishiwaki from the
Development Neurobiology Unit in the
OIST zebrafish facility.
Credit: OIST

Newborn babies can be at risk of congenital blindness, presenting sight defects due to lesions or to genetic mutations in their genome. 

Among the latter, Leber Congenital Amaurosis, or LCA, is one of the most widespread causes of child blindness and accounts for nearly five percent of vision impairments overall.

The syndrome can be genetically transmitted to a child when both parents possess at least one dysfunctional copy of a gene involved in eye development.

However, the molecular mechanism behind the disease remains unclear.

Now OIST researchers in the Developmental Neurobiology Unit have exposed a similar syndrome in zebrafish, which are an excellent model for studying human diseases.

From this research published in Scientific Reports, scientists aim to unravel the causes behind the disease in zebrafish and therefore provide new leads for a treatment for human LCA.

LCA affect the retina, the thin layer of tissue at the back of the eye that detects light as well as differentiates colours and communicates the information to the brain via the optic nerve.

A healthy retina usually features light-sensitive cells, photoreceptors, called cones and rods. Cones are specialized in bright environment and detect colours while rods are used in dim light but are monochrome, which is why we see in black and white at night.

A person with LCA will display deformed or absent cones and rods, thus preventing the detection of light. A total of 24 genes including a gene called Aipl1, standing for aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein like 1, have been linked to LCA in humans and mice.

The illness occurs when a DNA mutation within one of the genes affects the normal ocular development or induces photoreceptor, the cones and rods, degeneration.

OIST scientists selected the zebrafish as an animal model because its retina is rich in cones and its visual acuity can be measured with a simple device.

The researchers studied a genetically mutated zebrafish embryo that did not react to visual stimuli.

They discovered that zebrafish DNA contains two Aipl1 genes, namely Aipl1a and Aipl1b, which are respectively active in rods and cones. The mutant, called gold rush (gosh), presents a genetic mutation in the Aipl1b DNA sequence, losing Aipl1 activity in cone photoreceptors. 

Read the original press release HERE.

The Aquaculturists
This blog is maintained by The Aquaculturists staff and is supported by the
magazine International Aquafeed which is published by
Perendale Publishers Ltd

For additional daily news from aquaculture around the world: aquaculture-news

Leiber company profile

Now with more than 140 employees, with each one a specialist in his or her domain, Leiber has a well-proven team in a company following a clear strategy for more than 50 years: working with values.

“What makes us unique? We focus on what we know best. Yeast. Production on the highest level of quality. Latest technology. New findings from science and research. The performance of a team of specialists. 

This is what defines Leiber´s strategic orientation. This is what makes us truly entrepreneurial”, as explained on the Leiber website.

“The markets´ requirements are changing - we are able to follow. This is how we became one of the leading manufacturers of specialised yeast products”.

Visit the website HERE.

 The Aquaculturists
This blog is maintained by The Aquaculturists staff and is supported by the
magazine International Aquafeed which is published by
Perendale Publishers Ltd

For additional daily news from aquaculture around the world: aquaculture-news

19/04/2017: Managing mycotoxin risks in aquaculture

by Radka Borutova, DVM, PhD and Peter Coutteau, PhD Nutriad International, Belgium

Feed represents over 60 percent of operating costs in aquaculture (FAO, 2014)

Efforts to reduce the cost of feed have led to a reduction in the level of costly fishmeal and increased levels of plant ingredients in the feed of most fish species (Tacon et al., 2009).

As a result, all herbivorous and omnivorous fish have a high risk of exposure to feed that might contain significant levels of mycotoxins and this may potentially lead to significant economic losses (Pietsch et al., 2013). Mycotoxins are secondary toxic metabolites, produced by filamentous fungi, such as Aspergillus, Penicillium and Fusarium fungi.

Several mycotoxins commonly occur in feed and feedstuffs and some of the toxins such as aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), zearalenone (ZEN), deoxynivalenol (DON), fumonisin B1 (FB1) and ochratoxin A (OTA), draw the most scientific attention due to their toxic potentially adverse impacts on animal health (Placinta et al., 1999).

Discovery of trichothecenes
One of the most important groups of mycotoxins are the trichothecenes. This group (A type e.g. T2 toxin and B type e.g. deoxynivalenol [DON]) of structurally related mycotoxins has a strong impact on the health of animals and humans.

Trichothecenes are powerful inhibitors of protein synthesis. More than a century ago, plant pathologists in Europe and the United States associated wheat head blight with infections by Fusarium graminearum (F. graminearum), which produces DON and Nivalenol (NIV). F. graminearum is a plant pathogen which causes fusarium head blight, a devastating disease on wheat and barley responsible for worldwide economic losses worth billions of dollars each year.

F. graminearum infection causes shifts in the amino acid composition of wheat which results in shriveled kernels. In addition, the remaining grain is contaminated with mycotoxins, mainly DON, which inhibits protein biosynthesis, and ZEN.

Consumption of over-wintered grain contaminated by F. sporotrichioides and related species during world war II caused alimentary toxic aleukia and the deaths of hundreds of thousands of people in the former Soviet Union.

F. graminearum caused severe epidemics of akakabi-byo (red mold disease) on green wheat and other grains during the 1970s in Japan. People who ate products containing the contaminated grains typically developed nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, hemorrhageg, anemia and other symptoms of trichothecene toxicosis.

Japanese scientists were successful in identifying DON and NIV in grain infected with F. graminearum in 1972 (Desjardins, 2003). The Japanese researchers named it “Rd-toxin” (Moorooka et al., 1972). Shortly afterwards, the same mycotoxin was isolated from maize associated with emesis in pigs and given the name vomitoxin (Vesonder et al., 1973).

Effects of trichothecenes in aquaculture
Data showing the negative effects of trichothecenes in aquatic species is very limited. It is known that the effects of DON on animals vary depending on the nutritional and health status of the animals prior to exposure.

Environmental factors, forms of DON, as well as its dose and duration of exposure also affect animals (Hooft et al., 2011). Swine are considered a sensitive animal species to DON with concentrations as low as 1 to 2 mg/kg following oral exposure reducing feed intake and growth.

Feed refusal and vomiting are typical clinical signs in swine fed on diets containing 12 and 20 mg/kg DON, respectively (Young et al., 1983). The sensitivity to DON contaminated feed appears species-specific in fish. Only a few studies have reported adverse impacts of dietary DON on aquatic species; e.g., rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) (Hooft et al., 2011; Woodward et al, 1983).

Rainbow trout are extremely sensitive. Feed intake, weight gain, and feed efficiency were observed to decrease significantly with increasing levels of DON in diets with starting levels of 0.5 mg/kg (Hooft et al., 2010).

Significant decreases in weight gain, feed intake, feed efficiency, recovered energy, energy retention efficiency and nitrogen retention efficiency of rainbow trout fed diets containing low levels of DON ranging from 0.3 to 2.6 mg/kg from naturally contaminated corn were observed in a follow-up study (Hooft et al., 2011).

For references and to read the full article, click HERE.

The Aquaculturists
This blog is maintained by The Aquaculturists staff and is supported by the
magazine International Aquafeed which is published by
Perendale Publishers Ltd

For additional daily news from aquaculture around the world: aquaculture-news

Monday, April 17, 2017

18/04/2017: A promising future: Europe’s aquaculture production in safe hands

by Rhiannon White, International Aquafeed

Three years since the European Commission-funded project DIVERSIFY began its endeavor to acquire the necessary knowledge for the diversification of European Aquaculture production based on new/emerging finfish species, its annual meeting for 2017 was held in January

International Aquafeed magazine was invited to catch up on its progress. The jam-packed two-day conference was held at the majestic Palau Macaya in the heart of Barcelona.

The Palau Macaya was created in the midst of the Modernism Movement as a result of the meticulous collaboration between architects and artisans.

Fittingly, over a hundred years later, more than 60 leading researchers from around Europe came together there to collaborate and present their latest advancements for the six species under intense exploration for the diversification of European aquaculture production.

The conference was followed by a third day workshop, held at the University Pompeu Fabra, Campus del Mar near Porto Olimpico, in order to coordinate the work to be implemented in 2017.

The species studied in DIVERSIFY are greater amberjack (Seriola dumerili), meagre (Argyrosomus regius), Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus), grey mullet (Mugil cephalus), pike perch (Sander lucioperca) and wreck fish (Polyprion americanus).

Opening discussion on the status of sustainable aquaculture, the Director of Fisheries, Cataluña, Dr Sergei Tudela Casanovas addressed the notion, “We all know we’re facing lots of challenges – an important crisis in terms of overfishing in the Mediterranean, the need to have proper business plans and finally the task of connecting this to new consumption patterns”.

Recognizing that we are consuming seafood in very different ways to even 20 years ago and giving the example of the once popular and now diminished consumption of trout in Cataluña, Dr Tudela Casanovas highlighted the imminent need to adapt to climate change.

He concluded “We need new ideas, a fresh look into aquaculture and I hope that we are able to apply our new results into the field”.

On that note, tackling bottlenecks in the production of each species began. Presentations included ‘Wreck fish ontogeny of the major organs related to feeding and digestion’ by Dr Ioannis Papadakis, from HCMR (Greece) and approaches to improve the nutrition and husbandry of DIVERSIFY’s target species were addressed by Dr Covadonga Rodriquez, from University of La Laguna (Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain), within the context of consumer demands for healthy and environmentally friendly aquaculture products.

Important aspects of meagre culture were also investigated upon in relation to the effect of different stimuli parameters on feeding behavior such as cage depth, light conditions and water temperature.

These aspects were addressed by Dr A. Tsalafouta from HCMR (Greece). Also, the role of ‘Epigenetics in aquaculture’ was addressed by Dr Francesc Piferrer, from ICM-CSIC (Spain) who reinforced that “Timing is everything” particularly so in relation to the environmental and nutritional nuances experienced by wild and farmed fish, at different stages in their life.

He stated that ‘What happens to fish during early life has long-lasting effects’ elaborating upon Senegalese Sole born in captivity responding differently depending upon how long they remain in the wild for, prior to farming.

Dr Piferrer attended the meeting as an invited speaker, as well as Dr Panos Christofilogiannis from the COLUMBUS project and Dr Ignacio Jiménez from the biotechnology company Rara Avis, who specialised in the production of recombinant hormones.

The first two days of the meeting were open to companies and institutions directly or indirectly related to the project’s objectives.

Read the full article HERE.

The Aquaculturists
This blog is maintained by The Aquaculturists staff and is supported by the
magazine International Aquafeed which is published by
Perendale Publishers Ltd

For additional daily news from aquaculture around the world: aquaculture-news

18/04/2017: European launch of third generation Supra HDPE Netting at Seafood Expo Global

Following the successful launch of its Supra HDPE Netting during the offshore conference in Ensenada, Mexico and its North America presentation during the Seafood Expo in Boston, Fibras Industriales S.A., commercially known as FISA will introduce its 3rd generation netting to the European market at the Seafood Expo Global in Brussels
FISA will have a stand together with Sea Protein S.A., its sister company dedicated to scallop farming, in Hall 7 Stand 7-1749 Supra is the result of many year R&D together with feedback received from FISAs customers that have used its PE netting for predator protection and fish cages since its introduction at the Aquasur trade show in Puerto Montt, Chile, in October 2014.

Initial feedback from customers presented the product during the Ensenada offshore conference and Boston Seafood Expo have been extremely positive, with many large initial trial orders already been made.

Yoni Radzinski, Commercial Director of FISA, stated that these are nice sized trial orders from various select customers that have been highly impressed by the netting and wanted immediate access to the advantages of this product.

Mr Radzinski stated that “considering this is a high end product that was launched less than three months ago, the sales are greatly surpassing our expectations and it is now time for our European customers to enjoy the benefits of this product”.
Mr Radzinski is convinced that European customers will show great interest in this third generation anti predator netting, helping them tackle fish escape.

As previously stated, since 2013 the company has invested heavily in new machinery. The investment included growth in extrusion capacity, new netting machines, depth stretching equipment and a brand new 25,000m2 net loft.

During November 2014 the group said some customers had turned to FISA to jointly develop new polyethylene netting for their fish farms after seeing the product at Aquasur and thus has kept to its promise and is now ready to present the product to additional customers.

FISA is the largest multi-filament fishing net factory in the western hemisphere with over 70 years in the market and over the past years has extended its line of products to include monofilament netting for aquaculture, trawl nets and sports netting.

The company manufactures a full range of netting for purse seine fishing, trawling, long line fishing and fish farming cages. FISA is a sister company of the Peruvian scallop farmer Sea Protein S.A., which will be presenting jointly with FISA in the Peruvian pavilion, Booth 7-1749.

Read more HERE.

The Aquaculturists
This blog is maintained by The Aquaculturists staff and is supported by the
magazine International Aquafeed which is published by
Perendale Publishers Ltd

For additional daily news from aquaculture around the world: aquaculture-news

Zhengchang company profile

Zhengchang, established in 1918, has made constant innovations in feed machinery industry and accumulated a wealth of experience in tackling the various challenges facing feed companies and, more importantly, is able to offer a range of comprehensive solutions.
Zhengchang has now evolved into China’s largest manufacture of feed machinery and has 16 branches in China with over 1300 staff and more than thirty offices all over the world. 

Zhengchang to date has successfully constructed more than 2000 turnkey projects world around the world, covering fields of poultry and livestock feed, aquatic feed, pet feed, premix feed, sawdust pellet, fertiliser, silo storage, pasture, electrical control and garbage treatment, etc.

Zhengchang projects are designed to deliver to the client higher feed quality, higher overall capacity and more profits. 
Zhengchang have conquered challenges one after another for the customers and accumulated rich experience over the past 90 years.

They are now making great endeavors to apply their latest achievements to feed, pasture, environment protection, fertilizer, sawdust shaping industries.

Zhengchang is more than a professional partner who can provide advanced machinery, technology and management ideas.

It is also a true problem solver who knows you well during your development. Zhengchang is with you every step of the way.

Visit the website HERE.

The Aquaculturists
This blog is maintained by The Aquaculturists staff and is supported by the
magazine International Aquafeed which is published by
Perendale Publishers Ltd

For additional daily news from aquaculture around the world: aquaculture-news

18/04/2017: Vietnam shrimp workshop: from farm to fork - during Seafood Expo Global 2017 in Brussels, Belgium

Seafood Expo Global in Brussels, Belgium is an annual global exposition, features more than 1,700 exhibiting companies from over 75 countries 

The Seafood Expo Global is the place for exhibitors to promote their seafood products and all related seafood- industry products/services.

One of the most important targets of the exposition is to share the sustainable development view for global seafood supply chain.

It will create a space for all exhibitors to meet up with key buyers/retailers and many dialogues or workshops where the exhibitors and related stakeholders (NGOs, countries’ policy makers, financial institutions, impact investors, and more) can discuss the best solutions for sustainable development.

With the initially positive achievements that bring social and economic benefits for small scale producers and SMEs, the project "Sustainable and Equitable Shrimp production and Value chain development in Vietnam (SusV)" has decided to participate to the Seafood Expo Global Brussel held from April 25-27, 2017, aiming to create and enhance market access, promote international standards compliance of shrimp producers and processors, build buyers’ trust in transparent value chain and influence them for inclusive investment for the production.

Taking this opportunity, during the expo, Oxfam and ICAFIS will host a workshop on afternoon of April 25 on Vietnam shrimp: from farm to fork.

ICAFIS and Oxfam

Supporting Partners:
UBM, Aquaculture without frontiers, and International Aquafeed

Draft agenda:
Vietnam Shrimp - From farm to fork 1430 -1700

Presentation 1: What is it and why?– by Tran Dinh Luan, D. Secretary General of D-FISH

Presentation 2: How to farm and benefit by small scale producers ? – by Dr. Le Thanh Luu, VINAFIS, Director of ICAFIS

Presentation 3: How to process and benefit by SME processors? – by Mr Truong Dinh Hoe VASEP

Panel discussion - What are opportunities/challenges for Vietnam shrimp - from farm to fork?

- Tran Dinh Luan, D. Secretary General of D-FISH
- Le Thanh Luu, Vice chairman of VINAFIS
- Truong Dinh Hoe, Secretary General VASEP
- Flavio Corsin, Country Director of IDH Vietnam Representative of Nordic group, a buyer of eight Nordic countries
- Nguyen Le Hoa, D. Country Director, Oxfam in Vietnam

Facilitated by Mr Carson Roper. The dialogue will focus on what Vietnam has been doing well and what is missing to ensure ‘from farm to fork’. Then the role of relevant stakeholders will be discussed in which role of the buyer in influencing consumers, in putting pressure on production as well as in promoting inclusive investment are mentioned.

The representatives of all stakeholders will be expected to answer facilitator’s and participants’ questions.

More information:
For more information, contact Ms Do Thuy Ha or Mr Dinh Xuan Lap.

Ms Do Thuy Ha, Special Projects Manager, Private Sector Engagement Oxfam
Address: 22 Le Dai Hanh | Hanoi, Vietnam
Phone: +84 4 3945 4448 ext.401
Skype: do.thuy.ha 

Mr Dinh Xuan Lap, Deputy Director of ICAFIS
Skype: dinh.lap1
Address: 3rd Floor, A7 House – 10 Nguyen Cong Hoan St, Ba Dinh, Hanoi, Vietnam 
Office/Fax: +84 43 7245 121

Read more HERE.

The Aquaculturists
This blog is maintained by The Aquaculturists staff and is supported by the
magazine International Aquafeed which is published by
Perendale Publishers Ltd

For additional daily news from aquaculture around the world: aquaculture-news

Thursday, April 13, 2017

The Interview - Tom Wedegaertner, Director of Cottonseed Research at Cotton Incorporated

For the past 25 years, Tom Wedegaertner has been the Director of Cottonseed Research at Cotton Incorporated. Prior to that, he worked for a trade association representing the cottonseed processing industry. His career now spans 37 years of cottonseed industry involvement.

At Cotton Incorporated, he manages a research program designed to discover innovative ways to increase the utilisation and value of cottonseed, the number one byproduct of cotton production. The cotton plant actually produces more seed than it does fibre. The seed is an important source of revenue for cotton farmers, since it represents about 20 percent of the value of the crop. The biggest barrier to increasing the utilisation and value of cottonseed protein has always been the presence of a naturally occurring chemical defense mechanism that evolved in cotton and is distributed throughout the cotton plant.

This toxin is known as “gossypol” and it is toxic at some level to all animals and some insects. Tom has devoted much of his career to searching for a technology that would mitigate the toxic effects of gossypol. The genetic elimination of this toxin from cottonseed protein is now possible. This breakthrough technology has the potential to be a total game changer for both the cotton and aquaculture industries.

Growing up on a small livestock and rice farm, and having a butcher for a father, is what stimulated Tom’s passion for animal agriculture, whilst animals have always been a large part of his life. He holds graduate degrees in animal nutrition and marketing from Colorado State University and the University of Memphis. 


What is your background and when did you decide that agriculture/aquaculture was a field you wanted to work in?
Having grown up on a small farm and being around animals all my life, I have developed a passion for animal agriculture. Becoming an animal scientist just seemed like my destiny. Several years ago I became fascinated with saltwater reef aquariums and have maintained two tanks in my living room for more than 10 years. I also have a couple of boats and spend most of my free time boating, fishing or scuba diving. My transition from being an Animal Nutritionist to being an advocate for using cottonseed protein to extend fishmeal supplies in aquaculture feeds has been a natural progression of my career.

Was your education an important stepping-stone to the work you have ended up doing for Cotton Incorporated?
Absolutely! I had a Master of Science degree in animal nutrition and an MBA in marketing with 12 years of experience in the cottonseed industry 25 years ago when Cotton Incorporated went looking for a cottonseed expert to manage their cottonseed research and marketing program. I was a natural fit since the program I manage has both a research and marketing component. It is almost as though my educational background and experience were designed to prepare me for this job.

Do you believe GMOs are a safe and practical solution to feeding an ever-increasing population and improving living standards around the world?
Modern molecular biology (“GMO’s”) is an essential component to feeding more and more people on the planet. Food shortages in the future will also be the result of an improved standard of living in Third World countries. As people become more prosperous they want to add animal protein to their diet. Most land animals are very inefficient at converting plant protein to high-quality animal protein. Aquaculture species are very efficient at this conversion and can be grown just about anywhere in tanks, ponds and raceways. Aquaculture will be extremely important in our quest to eliminate hunger and malnutrition. Using biotechnology to eliminate toxins, produce higher yields, extend shelf life and enhance the nutritional value of foods and feeds is quite simply the most important component of modern agriculture. Over the past two decades, GMO’s have demonstrated their utility, safety and value to society. I expect that we will soon see an explosion of GMO technologies that will have a direct positive effect on human health and nutrition.

How should we explain the benefits of science to consumers who are increasingly suspicious of advancements in food production, especially those that involve genetic engineering?
I usually start out by reminding people that biotechnology and molecular biology (“GMO’s”) are already widely used throughout the medical world to diagnose, treat and cure diseases. If a person can acknowledge that the use of GMO technology to treat and cure a disease is acceptable, then the exact same technology deserves some level of acceptance when it is used in modern agriculture to enhance the quality and availability of food. Even though the average person isn’t familiar with the science of modern agriculture, they should be willing to consider the use of modern scientific techniques to improve both medical tools and food products.

What impact do you believe a protein rich and readily digestible cottonseed meal will make to our food supply over the coming years?
The cotton crop on the planet produces 11 million metric tonnes (mmt) of protein every year. To give you a feel for the magnitude of this massive protein reserve consider this; if cottonseed didn’t contain gossypol, this is enough protein to provide the daily protein needs of 600 million people. This is also an equivalent amount of protein to 16mmt of fishmeal; about four times the amount of fishmeal currently produced. Cottonseed protein is somewhat unique in that most aquaculture species find it to be very palatable, especially compared to other vegetable proteins. It appears that cottonseed protein might even contain an unidentified feeding stimulant, and with added Lysine it has been shown to effectively replace fishmeal in feeds for several aquaculture species. Unfortunately, at the moment, the presence of gossypol relegates all this protein to cattle feed, since ruminants are the only animals that can tolerate the toxin. All of this is about to change!

13/04/2017: The current mycotoxin threat in Southeast Asia

By Rui Gonçalves, Scientist Aquaculture and Michele Muccio, Product Manager Mycotoxins at BIOMIN

The global aquaculture industry’s rapid growth has been accompanied by a tandem rise in aquafeed production. In 2016, 39.9 million tons were produced (Reus, 2017)

The future growth and sustainability of the industry depends on the ability of the sector to identify economically viable and environmentally friendly alternatives to marine derived ingredients, such as fishmeal and fish oil.

A higher inclusion level of plant-based meals has been successfully achieved in several farmed species.

Recently, Gonçalves et al. (2016) reported that mycotoxin levels in aquaculture-finished feeds, sampled in 2014, were high enough to present a danger to several important aquaculture species.

The same was observed for samples sourced in Southeast Asia in 2015, even though contamination levels were lower compared to 2014. From 2014 to 2015, the number of detected mycotoxins per sample increased.

This co-occurrence can be problematic, since certain combinations of mycotoxins can magnify the harm caused to animals.

Aflatoxins are not the only threat
A deeply entrenched belief across the aquaculture industry is that majority of mycotoxin issues are the result of poor on-farm storage conditions leading to aflatoxin contamination.

While it remains true that the poor storage conditions can lead to the growth of Aspergillus sp. and Penicillium sp., which ultimately can lead to the production of aflatoxins (Afla) and ochratoxin A (OTA), the reality is that most of the mycotoxins found in finished feeds occur before storage.

The main source of mycotoxin contamination is the raw materials used to produce aquafeeds. This was exactly what was shown by Gonçalves et al., (2017), which reported that in Asian samples, soybean meal, wheat, wheat bran, corn, corn gluten meal, rapeseed/canola meal and rice bran were mostly contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins: zearalenone (ZEN), deoxynivalenol (DON) and fumonisins (FUM).

The only exception was cottonseed meal, which was mainly contaminated by aflatoxins together with Fusarium toxins (ZEN and DON) in considerable amounts.

These results are extremely important and confirm that mycotoxin contamination found in finished feeds is related to the plant-based raw materials used to formulate these compound feeds.

Read the full article HERE.

The Aquaculturists
This blog is maintained by The Aquaculturists staff and is supported by the
magazine International Aquafeed which is published by
Perendale Publishers Ltd

For additional daily news from aquaculture around the world: aquaculture-news

Wednesday, April 12, 2017

13/04/2017: CDFW releases first million of evacuated fish into Feather River, USA

The California Department of Fish and Wildlife (CDFW) in cooperation with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) released one million state and federally listed threatened spring-run Chinook salmon into the Feather River on Monday, March 20

Image: Mack Male
These were the first fish to be released that were evacuated from the Feather River Hatchery in Oroville on February 9, when the water became dangerously murky following the failure of the Oroville Dam spillway.

The fish were moved to the Feather River/Thermalito Annex Hatchery and held there until conditions improved.

“Based on the weather forecast and current reservoir storage, we are anticipating high flows in the Feather River for some time,” said CDFW Senior Environmental Scientist Colin Purdy.

“Releasing these fish now should allow them to imprint on Feather River water and move downstream before flows drop back down to normal levels.”

Central Valley spring-run Chinook are a state and federally listed species and their abundance has declined considerably during the recent drought.

The Feather River Fish Hatchery plays a key role in the state’s efforts to propagate this unique run of Chinook salmon.

“Today’s fish release marks the success of federal and state agencies coordinating and managing valuable resources while ensuring public safety during a crisis situation,” said Howard Brown, NOAA Sacramento River Basin Branch Chief.

“NOAA Fisheries remains deeply concerned with the damage of the Oroville spillways and is committed to reducing further threats to California communities and ecosystems.”

“This is another example of the extraordinary multi-agency effort to respond to this unfortunate incident,” said California Department of Water Resources Acting Director Bill Croyle.

“We will continue to work closely to protect the Feather River and its fisheries.” Of the fish that were evacuated, another million spring-run Chinook and three million fall-run Chinook remain at the Annex Hatchery.

CDFW and NOAA fisheries staff will continuously evaluate the remaining salmon and begin planting them in northern California Rivers when the fish are mature enough.

Read more HERE.

The Aquaculturists
This blog is maintained by The Aquaculturists staff and is supported by the
magazine International Aquafeed which is published by
Perendale Publishers Ltd

For additional daily news from aquaculture around the world: aquaculture-news